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Ulrich Elkmann Online

Beiträge: 12.678

22.10.2020 23:33
Neues vom Erdtrabanten Antworten

"Les hommes seront toujours fous; et ceux qui croient les guérir sont les plus fous de la bande." - Voltaire

Ulrich Elkmann Online

Beiträge: 12.678

28.10.2020 20:03
#2 RE: Neues vom Erdtrabanten Antworten

Bingo! Ich so:

Als dritte Möglichkeit möchte ich an dieser Stelle folgende - ebenfalls eisige - Variante ins Spiel bringen: ich vermute, es könnte sich um den Nachweis großer - oder jedenfalls größerer - Eismengen unterhalb der Mondoberfläche handeln, nicht - oder nicht NUR - an den Polen, sondern auch an anderen Regionen, diverse Meter unter der Oberfläche in der Form von Permafrost; in Bereichen, in denen die Temperatur nie über den Gefrierpunkt steigt (das Wasser würde bei mehr als 0 Grad Celsius zwar nicht flüssig aufgrund des Fehlens jeglichen Atmosphärendrucks, aber es würde sublimieren, verdunsten).

Und die NASA so:

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has confirmed, for the first time, water on the sunlit surface of the Moon. This discovery indicates that water may be distributed across the lunar surface, and not limited to cold, shadowed places.

SOFIA has detected water molecules (H2O) in Clavius Crater, one of the largest craters visible from Earth, located in the Moon's southern hemisphere. Previous observations of the Moon's surface detected some form of hydrogen, but were unable to distinguish between water and its close relative, hydroxyl (OH). Data from this location reveal water in concentrations of 100 to 412 parts per million - roughly equivalent to a 12-ounce botte of water - trapped in a cubic meter of soil spread across the lunar surface. The results are published in the latest issue of Nature Astronomy.
As a comparison, the Sahara desert has 100 times the amount of water than what SOFIA detected in the lunar soil. Despite the small amounts, the discovery raises new questions about how water is created and how it persists on the harsh, airless lunar surface. ... Whether the water SOFIA found is easily accessible for use as a resource remains to be determined.

Clavius? Der Name ist uns doch in einem bestimmten Zusammenhang geläufig?

Genau: die Mondbasis in Kubrik/Clarkes "2001 - A Space Odysssey" befindet sich im Krater Clavius.

Clavius Base was placed under a quarantine with the cover story of an epidemic when the Tycho Magnetic Anomaly TMA-1 artifact was excavated.

Ich habe allmählich den Eindruck, daß diejenigen, die die Matrix programmieren, es leicht übertreiben.

"Les hommes seront toujours fous; et ceux qui croient les guérir sont les plus fous de la bande." - Voltaire

Ulrich Elkmann Online

Beiträge: 12.678

28.10.2020 20:48
#3 RE: Neues vom Erdtrabanten Antworten

Such ice might not only provide water for future astronauts to drink, but water molecules can also be broken apart into their constituent hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The oxygen would give the astronauts something to breathe. Hydrogen and oxygen can also be used as rocket propellant for trips home to Earth or even some day to Mars and beyond.

“Anytime we don’t need to pack water for our trip, we have an opportunity to take other useful items with us,” said Jacob Bleacher, chief exploration scientist for the NASA’s human exploration and operations directorate.

In the observations taken by NASA’s flying telescope, scientists were able to observe a wavelength of infrared light, at six microns, emitted by water molecules. Those emissions were seen in sunlit parts of the Clavius crater near the South Pole but not near the lunar Equator where temperatures get warmer.

Observations by spacecraft a decade ago had also suggested a more widespread distribution of water on the moon. Those measurements focused on a shorter, three-micron wavelength that was more ambiguous, unable to differentiate between a water molecule, which consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom or hydroxyl, which has one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom.

“Hydroxyl is actually the active ingredient in drain cleaners,” said Casey I. Honniball, a postdoctoral researcher at NASA’s Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and lead author of the study that used SOFIA. “Hypothetically, if drain cleaner were on the moon, we could not tell the difference between the drain cleaner and water using the three-micron wavelength.”

The six-micron emissions are a “distinct chemical fingerprint” for water, Dr. Honniball said.
The SOFIA results are in rough agreement with the earlier measurements and do not change the estimate of the amount of water on the moon. The concentration at Clavius is low — “roughly equivalent to a 12 ounce bottle of water within a cubic meter,” Dr. Honniball said.

“To be clear, it’s not puddles of water, but instead water molecules that are so spread apart that they do not form ice or liquid water,” Dr. Honniball said.

She said the water molecules may be formed by particles of the solar wind hitting the moon or by the impacts of micrometeorites on the lunar surface. What remains unclear is how the water persists there. The heat of sunlight would be expected to knock the molecules into space.

“We think the water is trapped within glass beads in the soil that form during these micrometeorite impacts,” Dr. Honniball said.

Also not known is how difficult it might be to extract the water.

“If it’s locked into the glass beads, as Casey mentioned, it may require more energy to extract it,” Dr. Bleacher said. “If the water is mixed up in the soil, it might be a little easier.”

Until now, the search for water ice on the moon has focused in the shadows of large polar craters, among the coldest places in the solar system, with temperatures dipping down to minus-400 degrees Fahrenheit. That is so cold that anything that lands there rarely leaves.

There, the evidence has not been in question. But landing in a big, cold, dark crater is potentially dangerous and not the easiest of places to work.

Dr. Hayne’s work found what they call micro cold traps — small patches of the moon that are not as big or as deep but can be just as cold.

Back in 2014, Dr. Hayne started wondering if there might be other parts of the moon that also remain frigid. The axis of the moon is tilted only 1.5 degrees and does not wobble much. That means the path of the sun through the lunar sky does not change, and even small, shallow craters near the poles can lie in permanent shadow.

“The sun never rises higher than 10 degrees in the sky,” Dr. Hayne said. “The sunlight is coming in at very grazing angles so they don’t need to be very deep at all. Just a fraction of a centimeter is sufficient.”

In addition, the rocks and soil on the moon do not easily conduct heat, and even a shadowed patch less than an inch across could still be cold enough to trap water.

“If we could prove that these tiny shadows exist, then those tiny shadows could also have very cold temperatures,” Dr. Hayne said.

Using images from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which has been orbiting the moon since 2009, the scientists calculated that such micro cold traps could add up to 15,000 square miles of the lunar surface where ice could exist. They could not estimate the volume of water because they do not know how deep the water deposits extend.

The larger craters still constitute a large fraction of the permanently shadowed regions.

The accumulated layers of ice could record billions of years of the solar system’s history, almost like tree rings. “Where did Earth’s water come from?” Dr. Hayne said. “That’s still an open question.”

NASA is scheduled to send a small robotic lander to the moon’s South Pole in 2022. An infrared camera on board built by a team led by Dr. Hayne will “be able to tell, to test our hypothesis directly for the first time,” he said.

"Les hommes seront toujours fous; et ceux qui croient les guérir sont les plus fous de la bande." - Voltaire


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